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A phase of Ph+ CML progression, when the number of immature blood cells (blast cells) is increased.
An abnormal gene that creates a damaged protein by the same name. It causes the bone marrow to create leukemic cells. The BCR-ABL gene is formed when 2 specific chromosomes combine. The gene then creates the BCR-ABL protein—the underlying cause of Ph+ CML.
An immature blood cell.
The final phase of Ph+ CML progression, which has the highest number of immature blood cells (blast cells) in the blood and bone marrow.
A sponge-like tissue found in the center of most bones.
The DNA found in a cell. Human cells normally have 23 pairs of chromosomes.
Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML)
A type of cancer that starts in the bone marrow, causing too many damaged white blood cells to form.
The first phase of Ph+ CML progression when the number of white blood cells is higher than normal but may not cause symptoms.
Complete cytogenetic response
No Ph+ chromosomes are found in the bone marrow sample cytogenetic.
Complete hematologic response
When white blood cells, platelets, and red blood cell counts have returned to a normal range.
Tests done on bone marrow cells or white blood cells to see if they contain the Philadelphia chromosome.
The basic unit of heredity passed from parent to child. Genes are made of DNA and carry instructions for making proteins.
A simple blood test to measure levels of white blood cells, red blood cells, and platelets.
When a patient cannot continue taking a medication because of the side effects they are experiencing.
Diseased white blood cells that grow abnormally.
The levels of leukemia cells are 10 times lower than the standardized baseline of newly diagnosed patients.
The levels of leukemia cells are 100 times lower than the standardized baseline of newly diagnosed patients.
The levels of leukemia cells are 1000 times lower than the standardized baseline of newly diagnosed patients.
Major molecular response (MMR)
When the amount of BCR-ABL found in the bone marrow sample or blood sample through an IS-PCR test is very low.
An optimal response or improvement reached by a certain period of time after starting treatment.
The use of PCR (polymerase chain reaction) to find the number of cells expressing BCR-ABL in either blood or bone marrow.
PCR (polymerase chain reaction) or IS-PCR
A very sensitive test that counts the number of cells containing the BCR-ABL gene (which is located on the Philadelphia chromosome). It can be done on either blood or bone marrow cells and can detect a single abnormal cell within a sample of 1 million cells. IS stands for International Scale. It is a standardized scale for measuring and reporting results of PCR testing.
Philadelphia chromosome (Ph)
An abnormal chromosome that is responsible for the constant production of abnormal white blood cells (myeloid cells) present in Ph+ CML. The Philadelphia chromosome indicates that CML is present in the body.
Very small cells in the bone marrow that form blood clots and control bleeding.
An essential component of all living cells that is made up of amino acids.
Red blood cells
Move oxygen from the lungs to the body.
When a medical condition does not respond to treatment, or stops responding to treatment.
White blood cells
Help your body fight infection and disease.