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Glossary

TASIGNA

Accelerated phase

A phase of Ph+ CML progression, when the number of immature blood cells (blast cells) is increased.

 

BCR-ABL1

The BCR-ABL1 gene is formed when 2 specific chromosomes combine. The gene then creates the BCR-ABL1 protein—the underlying cause of Ph+ CML.

 

Blast cell

An immature blood cell.

 

Blast crisis

The final phase of Ph+ CML progression, which has the highest number of immature blood cells (blast cells) in the blood and bone marrow.

 

Bone marrow

The soft, spongy inner part of bones where blood cells are made.

 

Chromosome

Long strands that contain coded instructions in cells for making and controlling cells.

 

Chronic Myeloid Leukemia (CML)

A type of cancer that starts in the bone marrow, causing too many damaged white blood cells to form.

 

Chronic phase

The first phase of Ph+ CML progression when the number of white blood cells is higher than normal but may not cause symptoms.

 

Complete cytogenetic response

No Ph+ chromosomes are found in the bone marrow sample cytogenetic.

 

Complete hematologic response

When white blood cells, platelets, and red blood cell counts have returned to a normal range.

 

Cytogenetic testing

Tests done on bone marrow cells or white blood cells to see if they contain the Philadelphia chromosome.

 

Genetic material

The basic unit of heredity passed from parent to child. Genes are made of DNA and carry instructions for making proteins.

 

Hematologic testing

A simple blood test to measure levels of white blood cells, red blood cells, and platelets.

 

Intolerance

When a patient cannot continue taking a medication because of the side effects they are experiencing.

 

Leukemic cells

Diseased white blood cell that grows abnormally.

 

1-log reduction

The levels of leukemia cells are 10 times lower than the standardized baseline of newly diagnosed patients.

 

2-log reduction

The levels of leukemia cells are 100 times lower than the standardized baseline of newly diagnosed patients.

 

3-log reduction

The levels of leukemia cells are 1000 times lower than the standardized baseline of newly diagnosed patients.

 

Major molecular response (MMR)

When the amount of BCR-ABL1 found in the bone marrow sample or blood sample through an IS-PCR test is very low.

 

Milestones

An optimal response or improvement reached by a certain period of time after starting treatment.

 

Molecular testing

The use of PCR (polymerase chain reaction) to find the number of cells expressing BCR-ABL1 in either blood or bone marrow.

 

PCR (polymerase chain reaction) or IS-PCR

A very sensitive test that counts the number of cells containing the BCR-ABL1 gene (which is located on the Philadelphia chromosome). It can be done on either blood or bone marrow cells and can detect a single abnormal cell within a sample of 1 million cells. IS stands for International Scale. It is a standardized scale for measuring and reporting results of PCR testing.

 

Philadelphia chromosome (Ph)

An abnormal chromosome that is responsible for the constant production of abnormal white blood cells (myeloid cells) present in Ph+ CML. The Philadelphia chromosome indicates that CML is present in the body.

 

Platelet

A type of blood cell that helps blood to clot.

 

Protein

An essential component of all living cells that is made up of amino acids.

 

Red blood cell

Type of blood cell that carries oxygen to other cells in the body.

 

Resistance

When a medical condition does not respond to treatment, or stops responding to treatment.

 

White blood cells

A type of blood cell that fights infection.